Why To Exercise Today: So Your Flu Shot Works

Might the obese need a stronger flu shot?

This I hadn’t heard: The flu shot appears to be less effective in obese people compared to those at normal weight, and the more obese, the less effective the vaccine, according to new research reported in The New York Times. The smallish study raises questions about whether obese people, like the elderly, may need a stronger flu shot to jump-start a less robust immune system.

Researchers studied 74 people given the combination vaccine against three strains of flu in the 2009-10 season, measuring their antibody response one month after getting the shot and then a year later. A third of the group were of normal weight, a third overweight and a third obese. Most were women.

After one month, overweight people had produced about the same level of antibodies as those of normal weight. But 11 months later, more than half of the obese patients had a fourfold or greater decrease in antibodies, a drop seen in just 25 percent of the normal-weight subjects.

The study, published online last week in The International Journal of Obesity, found that the activity of CD8+ T cells, white blood cells that help fight flu infection, also decreased as body mass index increased.

100% Prevention And A Cure For HIV/AIDS: On The Horizon?

Dr. Fauci speaking recently at Holy Cross

As promised in my previous post, here’s more from Dr. Anthony Fauci, a leading expert on HIV/AIDS and director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. I asked him for a summary of new findings and advances in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS and finding a cure for those infected.

Since my interview with Dr. Fauci, another new finding was announced. As reported by the Globe, an international team of researchers has cracked the genetic code of the “controllers,” a mystifying group of individuals infected with HIV who are virtually free of symptoms and the need for medication. The researchers discovered five amino acids that distinguish controllers from their HIV counterparts facing less fortunate fates.

An excerpt from the Globe:

“HIV is slowly revealing its secrets,’’ said Dr. Bruce Walker, one of the leaders of the international consortium and director of the Ragon Institute, an AIDS-vaccine research center affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, and MIT.

“We’ve now been able to go from a haystack down to a needle and see that this is really the key place where we need to focus our effort,’’ he said.

Have there been any breakthroughs or developments in HIV/AIDS research?

Dr. Anthony Fauci: The first is in the arena of vaccine. We have been trying for over 20 years to develop a safe and effective vaccine, with nothing but unfortunate and discouraging failures. But a year and a half ago, in a trial that the NIH and the Department of Defense sponsored in Thailand among 16,000 people, it was the first indication of a modest, positive effect of preventing acquisition of HIV infection. It is not good enough to be ready for primetime by any means, but it’s the first positive step to prove the concept that a vaccine is at least feasible.

Also, this past year we’ve had some very encouraging results of studies that were conducted in South Africa using a topical microbicide — a vaginal gel which is inserted before and after intercourse — that prevented infection in, again, a modest number of individuals, about 39 percent compared to placebo. It was strongly related to whether or not the individuals actually used the gel. But this is again another important proof of concept. We have to improve upon the results, but at least it’s proved that this approach to prevention can work. So in the areas of microbicides and vaccine, [it’s] not quite yet where we want to be, but certainly going in the right direction.

Another important area that is being pursued is what’s called pre-exposure prophylaxis: mainly getting people who are at high risk and practicing high risk behavior – for example, discordant couples, commercial sex workers, injection drug users and others — and giving them a drug, every day, an anti-viral drug that is known to be safe, to prevent them from getting infected. The results of that study should be forthcoming in the next month or so.

What are the timelines for the development of such prevention methods and vaccines?
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