marathon bombing

RECENT POSTS

Bomber Trial: How Do You Talk To Children About The Death Penalty?

In this courtroom sketch, Assistant U.S. Attorney Aloke Chakravarty points to defendant Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Tsarnaev was found guilty and now faces the death penalty. (Jane Flavell Collins/AP)

In this courtroom sketch, Assistant U.S. Attorney Aloke Chakravarty points to defendant Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Tsarnaev was found guilty and now faces the death penalty. (Jane Flavell Collins/AP)

Killing is the ultimate bad, right? That’s what we teach our children. So how do we talk to them about the very real possibility, splattered across our screens and newspapers, that we may put a young man to death for his crimes?

“I think he should die,” said my 9-year-old child when I raised the question leading the news this week: whether Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev should be sentenced to death or life in prison. “If he killed [four] people and injured hundreds and ran from it he should have a very serious consequence.”

“Life in prison is worse,” said my older daughter.

The conversation then turned to what kinds of people commit crimes and why, and by the end, my young daughter was not so sure about the death penalty. Needless to say, it’s complicated.

Earlier this month, Tsarnaev, 21, was convicted on all 30 counts against him and was found responsible for the deaths of three spectators at the 2013 marathon as well as the fatal shooting of an MIT police officer.

Today, defense lawyers are making the case for life in prison for Tsarnaev, rather than the death penalty. The public, is seems, is also leaning in that direction: A recent WBUR poll found that only 31 percent of Boston area residents say they support the death penalty for Tsarnaev.

So how do we talk to our kids about all of this?

Shamaila Khan, Ph.D., is director of behavioral health at the Massachusetts Resiliency Center, a program of Boston Medical Center, and has been attending the Tsarnaev trial regularly, providing support for survivors at the courthouse. She was a responder on the day of the marathon in 2013 working with families and individuals brought to BMC. She has also worked closely with families affected by the bombing and its aftermath, including people in Watertown who were impacted by the hunt for the Tsarnaev brothers days after the bombings.

I spoke with Khan about how to help parents talk about these tough issues — life and death, justice and punishment and revenge — with children. Here, edited, is some of our conversation:

RZ: So, as a parent, how do you begin to talk to children about these complex issues?

SK: This is a very controversial topic. It’s hard enough for adults to talk about it, let alone children. Children respond differently based on their developmental level — depending on what age they are and where they are developmentally. But there are three basic things to consider: listening, protecting and connecting.

RZ: OK, can you give some more detail please?

So, first, listen. Ask the children if they’ve heard about this, and what they know. With social media, there’s so much information available and often children know more than parents think. If they have heard about this, listen to what they have to say. Often, our tendency as adults is to start explaining — first let the children tell you what they know. Once you know that, you can figure out how to answer their questions, and find out what they are curious about. If they are expressing opinions at one end of the spectrum [like my daughter], offer them another point of view, maybe something like, ‘Who knows why this person did this?’ and give them more information. Help them to think about it in a more complex way, highlighting the variation on the spectrum. But remember, sometimes not telling the whole truth is important.

Like if a child, say up to 12 years old, asks how exactly does the death penalty get carried out, you might want to explain it in a way that demonstrated how it’s done with the individual experiencing the least amount of pain. You can be kind of vague and abstract. I’ve given examples of a pet that needs to be put to sleep: It happens in a way that doesn’t hurt them. So, a little abstract and not giving all the graphic detail unless asked. You can explain the death penalty by saying, for example, there’s a process in place, and different ways that it can be done. They try to figure out the least painful method, maybe medication or an injection. They used to do worse things but they don’t do that any more. Just keep it simple and abstract.

So you also said “protecting” is important. How does that work in this context?

Children, no matter what you’re talking about, they think about their own self and safety: Where is this person? Can this person get out of prison and hurt me? Is he in the same town where we live? Is he chained up? What kind of person does this and can there be anyone else around to do this to me? So the child’s own sense of safety is triggered. As parents you want to make sure the kids are feeling protected and safe. So just reassuring them is important.

And “connection” — where does that come in?

Connection is about making sure their support system is in place. You make it clear that you are there as a parent or parents, and other people are around, teachers, family members and others. You make sure there are other people and systems in place and say, ‘If you ever want to talk, there are people around to talk to.’ Often children stay curious, and if talking is not what they want, offer them activities that give them other ways to address their feelings: write a letter — What would you say to this person? — write in a journal, create a drawing… Continue reading

Related:

Traumatic Turning Point: How The Marathon Bombing Shifted One Woman’s Depression

By Annie Brewster, M.D.

Jennifer on Marathon Monday 2013, before the runners started coming in (Courtesy)

Jennifer on Marathon Monday 2013, before the runners started coming in. (Courtesy)

Jennifer’s depression was deep and at times debilitating. For years, she tried various treatments but success was always temporary.

Something changed on the finish line at the Boston Marathon in 2013. It was, Jennifer says, “a turning point” in her life, but not in the ways you might expect.

As a marathon volunteer stationed a block from where the first bomb exploded, she witnessed the confusion and terror that ensued, and played an important role in helping one scared runner reunite with his family.

After the ordeal, Jennifer felt lucky to walk away alive. Her life goals changed that day and she says she now feels it’s her responsibility to help others. She continues to find concrete ways to do so.

Listen to Jennifer here:

She had already signed up to participate in a program at the  Benson-Henry Institute of Mind-Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital the week following the bombing. Primed by her experience during and after the race, Jennifer devoured the class, which focused on relaxation techniques.  It deepened her sense of self-acceptance and gave her skills to manage her own depression, but also strengthened her resolve to help others. She ultimately went on to become a peer counselor at the institute.

Now, her central message is this: while we can’t necessarily control what happens to us in life, we can control the meaning we make of our experiences.

Jennifer says she’s determined to make the events of April 15, 2013, mean something, and to translate this meaning into action. As far as her depression, she has come around to recognizing “some of the good things about depression” — namely her appreciation for the small things in life, and her increased sense of empathy for others. “It’s like any other illness,” she says. “It doesn’t have to limit you. It’s all about making it mean something.”

Dr. Annie Brewster, M.D., is founder and executive director of Health Story Collaborative, a nonprofit in Boston.

What The Boston Marathon Response Can Teach Us About Ebola: 5 Lessons

By Leonard Marcus, Ph.D, Barry Dorn, M.D., Richard Serino and Eric J. McNulty, M.A.

The massive and growing Ebola outbreak in West Africa is tragic both in the suffering and deaths among the affected population and in the difficulty of mounting a sufficient response. The number of cases is rising exponentially. We have had the first death in the U.S., the first case of someone contracting the disease in this country and the first case of transmission in Europe. Over the weekend, a man who had recently traveled to Liberia was taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to be evaluated for possible Ebola.

Fear and anxiety are rising.

This has the potential to be the defining public health crisis of the 21st century. Boston has stepped up by sending doctors and other health care professionals with extensive experience and expertise. There is, however, something more that Boston has to share: the leadership lessons from the Boston Marathon bombing response.

(Ebola in Guinea/European Commission HG ECHO/flickr)

(Ebola in Guinea/European Commission HG ECHO/flickr)

After the Marathon, we saw federal, state and local agencies, as well as organizations in the private and non-profit sectors, came together as an integrated enterprise that can serve as a model for the Ebola response. While the two events are quite different, the principles for leadership effectiveness are actually similar.

There are five key interrelated lessons from Boston that can be useful as the world confronts Ebola:

Build A United Effort

An effective Ebola response requires linking and leveraging many organizations into a collaborative, cooperative enterprise, much like we saw in Boston after the bombing. Continue reading