dyslexia

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Carly Simon And Family Point To Positive, Creative Side Of Dyslexia (Including Theirs)

Grammy award-winning musician Carly Simon struggled with dyslexia as a child. Here she is performing in California in 2012. (Frank Micelotta/Invsion/AP)

Grammy award-winning musician Carly Simon struggled with dyslexia as a child. Here she is performing in California in 2012. (Frank Micelotta/Invsion/AP)

Few parents are thrilled by the news that their child has dyslexia.

But increasingly, families are viewing the language processing disorder in a new light — not as a disability, but simply as a different way of perceiving the world. Indeed in some families, the dyslexic brain is viewed as having distinct advantages.

One celebrated Martha’s Vineyard family is trying to spread the word that a diagnosis of dyslexia doesn’t spell doom; on the contrary, it can lead to more creativity and out-of-the-box thinking.

Carly Simon, the Grammy award-winning musician, is now 70. But few people know that the accomplished singer and songwriter struggled with dyslexia, and a stutter, as a child.

“Being embarrassed at school is a terrible thing…when your peers are making fun of you because they can’t understand what wonderful whimsy your mind may be making up and going through,” she said recently. “While they’re just going 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10, you’re going 1-2-4-5-7-8-9-3!”

Carly Simon in West Tisbury on a recent summer day (Rachel Zimmerman/WBUR)

Carly Simon in West Tisbury on a recent summer day (Rachel Zimmerman/WBUR)

‘Welcome To The Cool Club’

Still, Simon believes her dyslexia has a direct influence on how she makes music. She says her hit song “Anticipation,” for instance, “came down from the universe into my head and then out my mouth, so it bypassed the mind.”

These days, Simon lives in a lush compound on Martha’s Vineyard, where family members often spend the summer.

Dyslexia tends to run in families, and it runs in Simon’s. Her 38-year-old son Ben, a musician, has dyslexia. So does her 41-year-old daughter, Sally, an artist.

But the family wants to show their dyslexia can be a positive force — a challenge, absolutely, but also a catalyst for new ways of framing the world or problem-solving that might lead a child to become a famous artist or a successful entrepreneur.

Simon’s daughter Sally Taylor (whose father is musician James Taylor) vividly recalls the day, at age 10, when she learned she had dyslexia: She anxiously walked home with the diagnosis scrawled on a piece of paper in her hand.

“I just felt as though it was somehow the end of the world,” Taylor said in an interview. “[W]hen my mom saw my tears streaming down my face, she said, ‘What’s going on?’ and she opened this letter and saw that I was being diagnosed as having dyslexia and she just said, ‘Wow, this is awesome,’ like, ‘Congratulations, this is fantastic, and welcome to the family. We’re all dyslexic therefore we’re all going to understand each other better now…Welcome to the cool club,’ ”

Sally Taylor, the daughter of Carly Simon and James Taylor, describes herself as "an artist, mother, wife and dyslexic." (Courtesy of the family)

Sally Taylor, the daughter of Carly Simon and James Taylor, describes herself as “an artist, mother, wife and dyslexic.” (Courtesy of the family)

Simon speaks of her daughter’s struggles at school.

“I remember Sally reading ‘A Tree Grows in Brooklyn,’ ” Simon said. “She couldn’t read enough pages to get the assignment…she’d cry and feel different and feel stupid.”

Sally Taylor’s husband, Dean Bragonier, also dyslexic, was teased mercilessly in middle school for his painfully slow reading.

Now, he hopes to make things better for other kids with the disorder. Bragonier is swimming around Martha’s Vineyard — 50 nautical miles over several weeks — to raise money for his nonprofit, called NoticeAbility.

The end result will be a set of educational tools for middle school-aged kids with dyslexia. It’s an online, project-based curricula that doesn’t replace traditional classroom learning but seeks to enhance it, allowing each child to focus on one of four specific areas that they might be drawn to: entrepreneurial leadership, engineering, architecture and the arts.

In general, these are realms that some dyslexics have excelled at: think Whoopi Goldberg or cellphone pioneer Craig McCaw. Continue reading

A Podcast For Your Brain: The Checkup, Episode 8

It’s the only organ in the human body that tries to understand itself (though not always successfully).

Still, the brain is on our brains in the latest episode of The Checkup, our recently relaunched health news podcast, a joint venture between WBUR and Slate.

Can you enhance your brain through music? Detect dyslexia even before kids learn to read? Alleviate the symptoms of deep depression with a brain implant?

Carey and I explore these and other questions as we delve into some of the latest advances in brain research.

And in case you missed our last episode, “Scary Food Stories,” where we tell the tale of a recovering sugar addict and offer sobering news to kale devotees, you can listen now, or download it anytime.

Make sure to tune in next week, when we present: “Grossology,” an episode on how the dirty corners of your life might benefit your health.

Each week, The Checkup features a different topic — previous episodes focused on college mental health, sex problems, the Insanity workout and vaccine issues.

2014: CommonHealth Year Of The Brain, From Depression To Dyslexia

 

A map of nerve fibers in the human brain (. (Courtesy of Zeynep Saygin/Massachusetts Institute of Technology.)

A map of nerve fibers in the human brain (. (Courtesy of Zeynep Saygin/Massachusetts Institute of Technology.)

Happy almost 2015. Instead of doing our usual “Top 10 CommonHealth stories of the year” post, we’ve decided instead to look back at our tip-top, far-and-away #1 organ of the year for 2014.

Hint: It’s well above the waist. The brain is, to quote Pink Floyd: “All that you touch/All that you see/All that you taste/All you feel./All that you love/All that you hate/All you distrust/All you save.”

Etcetera. The brain is also the focus of some of the most fascinating research in modern-day science.

Our 2014 series, “Brain Matters: Reporting from the Front Lines of Neuroscience,” tried to capture a partial snapshot of this pivotal moment in brain science, a time of new tools and insights so promising that scientists themselves are saying this is the most exciting time ever to work on the brain.

The series included the set of gorgeous images below, compiled by former intern Suzanne E. Jacobs, and a collection of short video interviews with young neuroscientists, produced by WBUR’s Jesse Costa: 11 Young Neuroscientists Share Their Cutting Edge Research.

The individual “Brain Matters” pieces, in reverse chronological order:

Wishing you a wonderful new year. Special thanks to WBUR’s Iris Adler, who supervised the “Brain Matters” series. And now, for your visual pleasure, the wondrous view inside your head: Continue reading

‘I’m Not Stupid, Just Dyslexic’ — And How Brain Science Can Help

Sixth-grader Josh Thibeau has been struggling to read for as long as he can remember. He has yet to complete a single Harry Potter book, his personal goal.

Growing up with dyslexia: Josh Thibeau, 12, imagines his brain as an ever-changing maze with turns he must learn to navigate. Here he is with his mother, Janet. (George Hicks/WBUR)

Growing up with dyslexia: Josh Thibeau, 12, thinks of his brain as an ever-changing maze with turns he must learn to navigate. Here he is with his mom, Janet. (George Hicks/WBUR)

When he was in first grade, Josh’s parents enrolled him in a research study at Boston Children’s Hospital investigating the genetics of dyslexia. Since then, Josh has completed regular MRI scans of his brain. Initially, it seemed daunting.

“When we first started, I’m like, ‘Oh no, you’re sending me to like some strange, like, science lab where I’m going to be injected with needles and it’s going to hurt,’ I’m like, ‘I’m never going to see my family again,’ ” says Josh, who lives in West Newbury, Mass.

Josh and his three biological siblings all have dyslexia to varying degrees. Pretty much every day he confronts the reality that his brain works differently than his peers’. He’s even shared scans of his brain with classmates to try to show those differences. Some kids still don’t get it.

“There was a student that said, ‘Are you stupid?’ Because my brain was working in a different way,” Josh says. “And I’m just like, ‘No, I am not stupid…I’m just dyslexic.’ ”

The Pre-Reading Brain 

On average, one or two kids in every U.S. classroom has dyslexia, a brain-based learning disability that often runs in families and makes reading difficult, sometimes painfully so.

Compared to other neurodevelopmental disorders like ADHD or autism, research into dyslexia has advanced further, experts say. That’s partly because dyslexia presents itself around a specific behavior: reading — which, as they say, is fundamental.

Now, new research shows it’s possible to pick up some of the signs of dyslexia in the brain even before kids learn to read. And this earlier identification may start to substantially influence how parents, educators and clinicians tackle the disorder.

Until recently (and sometimes even today) kids who struggled to read were thought to lack motivation or smarts. Now it’s clear that’s not true: Dyslexia stems from physiological differences in the brain circuitry. Those differences can make it harder, and less efficient, for children to process the tiny components of language, called phonemes.

And it’s much more complicated than just flipping your “b’s and “d’s.” To read, children need to learn to map the sounds of spoken language — the “KUH”, the “AH”, the “TUH” — to their corresponding letters. And then they must grasp how those letter symbols, the “C” “A” and “T”, create words with meaning. Kids with dyslexia have far more trouble mastering these steps automatically.

For these children, the path toward reading is often marked by struggle, anxiety and feelings of inadequacy. In general, a diagnosis of dyslexia usually means that a child has experienced multiple failures at school.

But collaborations currently underway between neuroscientists at MIT and Children’s Hospital may mark a fundamental shift in addressing dyslexia, and might someday eliminate the anguish of repeated failure. In preliminary findings, researchers report that brain measures taken in kindergartners — even before the kids can read — can “significantly” improve predictions of how well, or poorly, the children can master reading later on.

Implicated in dyslexia: The arcuate fasciculus is an arch-shaped bundle of fibers that connects the frontal language areas of the brain to the areas in the temporal lobe that are important for language (left). Researchers found that kindergarten children with strong pre-reading scores have a bigger, more robust and well-organized arcuate fasciculus (bottom right) while children with very low scores have a small and not particularly well-organized arcuate fasciculus (top right). (Zeynep Saygin/MIT)

Implicated in dyslexia: The arcuate fasciculus is an arch-shaped bundle of fibers that connects the frontal language areas of the brain to the areas in the temporal lobe that are important for language (left). Researchers found that kindergarten children with strong pre-reading scores have a bigger, more robust and well-organized arcuate fasciculus (bottom right) while children with very low scores have a small and not particularly well-organized arcuate fasciculus (top right). (Zeynep Saygin/MIT)

Pinpointing The White Matter Culprit

Using cutting-edge MRI technology, the researchers are able to pinpoint a specific neural pathway, a white matter tract in the brain’s left hemisphere that appears to be related to dyslexia: It’s called the arcuate fasciculus.

“Maybe the most surprising aspect of the research so far is how clear a signal we see in the brains of children who are likely to go on to be poor readers.”

– MIT neuroscientist John Gabrieli

“It’s an arch-shaped bundle of fibers that connects the frontal language areas of the brain to the areas in the temporal lobe that are important for language,” Elizabeth Norton, a neuroscientist at MIT’s McGovern Institute of Brain Research, explains.

In her lab, Norton shows me brain images from the NIH-funded kindergartner study, called READ (for Researching Early Attributes of Dyslexia).

“We see that in children who in kindergarten already have strong pre-reading scores, their arcuate fasciculus is both bigger and more well organized,” she says. On the other hand: “A child with a score of zero has a very small and not particularly organized arcuate fasciculus.”

She says we’re not quite ready to simply take a picture of your child’s brain and say “Aha, this kid is going to have dyslexia,” but we’re getting closer to that point. Continue reading

Tracking Dyslexia In The Preschool Brain

By Karen Weintraub
Guest Contributor

Roughly one child in 10 will struggle to learn to read, but no one can tell which one until he or she starts to fall seriously behind.

At that point – often in 3rd grade – they’ve already taken a hit to their self-esteem and they’re too old for early intervention that can make the biggest difference.

This conundrum has troubled MIT professor John Gabrieli for years.

The area highlighted in yellow, called the arcuate fasciculus, is less robust in children at high risk for dyslexia, according to a new study.

The area highlighted in yellow, called the arcuate fasciculus, is less robust in children at high risk for dyslexia, according to a new study.

Today, the neuroscientist and colleagues published a study that begins to address the problem. They showed on brain scans that kindergartners at risk for dyslexia also had less robust connections between two key language areas on the left side of the brain.

Previously, researchers weren’t sure whether the differences they saw in the brains of people with dyslexia were causes of the condition, or effects of their struggle to read. Because Gabrieli’s group saw the distinction in children too young to read, their brain differences must predate reading problems.

His ultimate hope, of course, is to use these differences to identify children before they begin to struggle, and get them into early intervention programs. Continue reading