antibiotic-resistant infections

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Rare Good News On Antibiotic Resistance: Promise Of Tougher New Drug

Northeastern researchers use an "iChip," a miniature device that can isolate and help grow single cells in their natural environment, and was instrumental in the discovery of teixobactin. (Slava Epstein/Northeastern U.)

Northeastern researchers use an “iChip,” a miniature device that can isolate and help grow single cells in their natural environment, and was instrumental in the discovery of teixobactin. (Slava Epstein/Northeastern U.)

Here’s a rare treat: potential good news about antibiotic resistance.

For years, the drumbeat of warnings has grown increasingly dire: The bugs are evolving more and more resistance to our biggest antibiotic guns. Some bacteria — strains of tuberculosis and gonorrhea among them — have even become resistant to all antibiotics. Remember the bad old days before these wonder drugs, when bacterial infections were so often death sentences? No one wants to go back there.

So today’s report in the journal Nature offers a nicely contrasting ray of antimicrobial hope: It reports the discovery in soil of a potentially powerful new antibiotic, dubbed teixobactin (pronounced takes-o-bactin), that appears to be less vulnerable to evolving resistance than other antibiotics.

“Early on, we saw that there was no resistance developed to teixobactin, and this is of course an unusual and intriguing feature of the compound,” says Northeastern professor Kim Lewis, senior author on the Nature paper. The methods used to discover and develop the compound have “a good chance of helping revive the field of antibiotic discovery,” he says.

Northeastern Prof. Kim Lewis, director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center in the College of Science, researches novel antibiotic treatments. (Brooks Canaday/Northeastern Univ.)

Northeastern Prof. Kim Lewis, director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center in the College of Science, researches novel antibiotic treatments. (Brooks Canaday/Northeastern Univ.)

Teixobactin worked “exceptionally well” to kill resistant bacteria in mice, Lewis says, but it will take several years and probably over $100 million to develop it into a drug that could be prescribed to human patients. It’s among two dozen other compounds that he and colleagues have turned up using a novel method to develop substances found in soil that could be useful as antibiotics.

Teixobactin works by attacking the biological building blocks of the bacteria’s cell walls, says co-author Tanja Schneider of the University of Bonn. That basic target, which is hard for the cell to modify, may help explain why the bacteria seem unable to develop resistance, she says. Continue reading

CDC: Millions Acquire Antibiotic-Resistant Infections, Thousands Die Annually

The CDC reports today that more than two million people a year in the U.S. get infections that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die as a result.

In a new report called Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, the public health agency ranks the antibiotic-resistant germs most threatening to human health. Here’s more from the CDC website:

The threats are ranked in categories: urgent, serious, and concerning.
Threats were assessed according to seven factors associated with resistant infections: health impact, economic impact, how common the infection is, a 10-year projection of how common it could become, how easily it spreads, availability of effective antibiotics, and barriers to prevention. Infections classified as urgent threats include carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), drug-resistant gonorrhea, and Clostridium difficile, a serious diarrheal infection usually associated with antibiotic use. C. difficile causes about 250,000 hospitalizations and at least 14,000 deaths every year in the United States.

“Antibiotic resistance is rising for many different pathogens that are threats to health,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “If we don’t act now, our medicine cabinet will be empty and we won’t have the antibiotics we need to save lives.”

In addition to the toll on human life, antibiotic-resistant infections add considerable and avoidable costs to the already overburdened U.S. health care system. Studies have estimated that, in the United States, antibiotic resistance adds $20 billion in excess direct health care costs, with additional costs to society for lost productivity as high as $35 billion a year. The use of antibiotics is the single most important factor leading to antibiotic resistance. Up to 50 percent of all the antibiotics prescribed for people are not needed or are not prescribed appropriately. Continue reading